In more than 90 countries

The consumer

Consumer Profile
Morocco has a young population (median age of 30.2 years in 2022, Data Reportal) and large households (4.2 people on average in 2021, Ministry of Finance). 25.6% of the population is below 15 years old, 16.4% are between 15-24, 46.2% between 25 and 59, and 11.7% are 60 or older (Ministry of Finance, 2021). However, the population growth rates stands at only 0.91% in 2022 (CIA World Factbook).
In recent decades the urban population has increased substantially, reaching 64.6% of the total in 2022, with an annual urbanization rate estimated at 1.88% between 2020-2025 (CIA World Factbook). The territorial distribution of urbanization is particularly unequal, with one in three residents in two regions, Greater Casablanca and Rabat Salé Zemour Saer. Literacy among men aged 15 or more reached 83.3%, while that of their female counterparts is much lower, at 64.6% (CIA estimates). School is compulsory from 6 to 14 year olds and the number of out-of-school children has dropped sharply in recent years.
Most of the population is active in the services sector (45,8%), although the agricultural sector also has an important share - at 31.3% - followed by the industrial sector (22.9% - Ministry of Finance, 2020).
Purchasing Power
Morocco’s GDP per capita (PPP) was estimated at USD 8,143.5 in 2021 by the World Bank. According to the latest figures released by the National Security Fund (CNSS), the average salary of Moroccans in 2020 stood at MAD 5,152. Divided by sectors (CNSS, 2018), the average wages vary: civil servants average monthly wages sat at MAD 7,549. The highest paid workers were employed in the financial and insurance sectors (MAD 14,749), followed by the IT and communications sector (MAD 10,953). The lowest paid workers were employed in the agriculture (MAD 2,216 per month in 2020) and hospitality (MAD 3,963) sectors. The median salary stood at MAD 2,723 in 2018 (CNSS, latest data available).
It is estimated that three quarters of the total mass of consumption expenditure is made by the wealthiest half of the population, and five out of twelve regions contribute to three quarters of total consumption, i.e. Casablanca Settat, Rabat Salé Kenitra, Tangier Tetouan Al Hoceima, Fes Meknes and Marrakech Safi. The level of inequality in the distribution of wealth is indeed quite high in Morocco, with the highest Gini Index coefficient in North Africa according to a study by the OECD. This disparity is particularly significant at the gender level, the country ranking 136th out of 146 in the latest report of the World Economic Forum on gender parity. In 2020, Moroccan women earned about 15.5% less than men (CNSS, 2020).
Consumer Behaviour
For purchases the Moroccan consumer favours neighbourhood establishments where there is a relationship of trust built on contact with the seller. Some 55% of women are responsible for household purchases, 47% of whom seek information before buying and 54% choose brands over the price, according to an Ipsos study. In general, Moroccan consumers prefer to turn to local brands and products. According to a study by Sungeria Group and L’Economiste (2022), 60% of Moroccans prefer local products over foreign brands. But they are increasingly numerous, especially young people, in turning to foreign brands belonging to large multinationals. In addition, Moroccans are not particularly loyal to brands and this trend is continuing. Non-monetary offers such as loyalty programs providing priority services and product customisation are particularly popular, especially with millennials. Thus, only 55% of women surveyed responsible for household purchases say they are loyal to brands and 53% say they are on the lookout for the best offers and promotions.
E-commerce is still underdeveloped in Morocco, but online shopping has increased since the Covid-19 pandemic and the trend continues. During the first quarter 2022, online payment transactions increased by 34.3% compared to the same period in 2021, and the transaction values increased by 19.3% (CMI). While internet penetration has grown considerably over the past few years, now reaching approximately 84% of the total population in 2022 (Data Reportal), only 7% of internet users currently shop online. Only 4% of women responsible for household purchases say they have already done their shopping online and 20% say they look for information on the internet (they are 80% to rely on conventional media). Only a minority of Moroccan consumers use social networks, and among them, many do not want to have contact with a brand through this medium. However, the participation rate of Moroccan communities on brand fan pages is increasing. Thus, consumers who have chosen to follow one or more brands on social networks are investing more and more in their relationship with them, which tends to influence their purchasing decisions. Child-related spending is a top priority for 90% of parents, compared to 76% for travel, 75% for adult clothing and 59% leisure time, according to the Wafasalaf Observatory. Child participation in purchase decisions for food products is 71% and clothes 60% with 50% of kids valuing different brands of clothing.
In recent years we have seen a change in the eating habits of Moroccan consumers who are increasingly turning to healthy and organic products. This turning point concerns mainly young people and pregnant women. The country's major cities have seen many specialty stores flourish and some retailers have even expanded their networks from a dozen to some 700 outlets in 2-3 years.
Consumer Recourse to Credit

The use of household credit has been steadily increasing in recent years. According to the latest report by Bank Al Maghrib (Morocco’s central bank), household debt increased by 5.1% y-o-y in 2019, reaching MAD 358.6 billion. Of the total debt, around 63% is composed of home loans (+3.8% y-o-y), while 37% (+1% y-o-y) is destined to consumer credit.
Concerning home loans, the average credit in 2019 stood at around MAD 391,000, with 58% of the loans having a repayment term of 20 years or more. The beneficiaries of this type of credit were over 40 years in more than 60% of cases.
When it comes to consumer credit, more than over 75% of loans have a duration of more than 5 years. Bank Al Maghrib estimates the average amount at MAD 54,000 in 2019.  Over one-third (36%) of consumers recurring to credit had a monthly income below MAD 4,000, whereas 41% had monthly revenues above MAD 6,000. Out of all the people that recurred to consumer credit, 49% were employees, 34% civil servants, 7% retirees, 5% artisans and tradesmen and 5% freelancers.
In 2019, the risk credit for home loans reached 6.8%, from 6.5% one year before; and the consumer credit risk also increased from 10.3% to 10.7%.

Growing Sectors
Infrastructure, agriculture, agribusiness, construction, as well as sports and tourism represent promising sectors according to the French Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Morocco. Added to this is the still-young ICT sector, which represents one of the strategic axes of development put forward by the National Pact for Industrial Emergence.
Consumers Associations
Consumer Portal of Morroco


Importing & Distributing

Import Procedures
For free imports, the importer must sign a commitment for imports on form "Commitment for Import, Import license, Preliminary Import Declaration" (in French).
The Commitment to Import must be drawn up in 5 specimens and accompanied by a Pro-forma invoice in 5 copies specifying:

  • the unit price expressed in ex-works value, FOB, FAS;
  • quantity expressed in units of appropriate measures;
  • trade description of the goods.

The Commitment to Import must be filed with an authorised bank chosen by the importer for domiciliation. After domiciliation, the bank gives the importer their own copy along with two extra copies, in a sealed envelop for the customs office. The Commitment to Import is valid for 6 months as from the date of its domiciliation and facilitates customs clearance and the financial settlement of the goods.

An application for exemption from customs duties is necessary for free imports allowed as duty-free within the framework of the tariff and commercial Agreements and Accords concluded between Morocco and certain countries, products belonging to tariff quotas set forth by the Association and Free trade Agreements concluded between Morocco and the European Community and Morocco and the States of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and products belonging to tariff quotas envisaged by the Multilateral Agreements.

Application for exemption from customs duties is to be made in 4 copies on a form called "Customs Exemption Application" and accompanied by a pro forma invoice in 3 copies, specifying:

  • the unit price expressed in ex-works value, FOB, FAS;
  • quantity expressed in units of appropriate measures;
  • trade description of the goods.

Application for exemption from customs duties is lodged with the Ministry of Foreign Trade; it is delivered by this department after consultation with the ministry concerned. The decision to grant or refuse exemption from customs duties is notified to the concerned party by the Ministry of Foreign Trade. Exemption from customs duties is valid for a maximum of 6 months as from the date of the stamp of the Ministry for Foreign Trade.

Import of goods is further subject to the invoice, the import title and, if necessary other documents required according to the nature of the products, on presentation at the customs office within 60 days as from the deposit of the summary declaration, a detailed declaration on a form called "Single Declaration of Goods" (DUM).

In the case of imports, you can make an advance payment up to 40% of the transaction. The advance payment is authorized for certain products to the limit of the value of DH 200,000 (see Circular 1718 of 1st August, 2007). For more information on the framework of the exchange transactions regulation, please consult the website of the Moroccan Foreign Exchange Office(in French only).

For more information on customs clearance procedure, please visit the website of Moroccan Customs.

Specific Import Procedures
For goods subject to import license, the importer must submit the license application form in 6 copies, against receipt, with the Ministry of Industry, Investment, Trade and Digital Economy. The license is issued delivered by the ministry, after consultation with other concerned ministries. The import license is valid for 6 months to the maximum.
Certain goods are also subject to a preliminary import declaration: those that are likely to cause a serious damage to local production. These include cases of massive imports, imports of products subsidised in the exporting country or products imported at dumped prices. The importer must submit 6 copies of the preliminary import declaration application with the Ministry of Industry, Investment, Trade and Digital Economy. The Ministry of Foreign Trade assesses the application within 10 days. The preliminary import declaration is valid for a period of 9 months and renewable once.
Distribution channels
The food retail sector has been growing in recent years, and in 2021 it represented 14% of the country’s GDP (USDA, latest data available). Although traditional channels still account for 80% of grocery retailing, large-scale distribution is expected to account for about 30% of national consumption by 2025 (Ministry of Industry estimates). Several factors are influencing the changing retail sector in Morocco: a high rate of population growth and rapid urbanisation, combined with the rise of disposable income.

The retail distribution of food in Morocco varies across income levels. Superstores generally cater to more affluent consumers. Traditional neighbourhood stores cater to the lower income population who tend to buy fewer items on a frequent basis. Weekly rural farmers' markets cater to rural populations. Higher income earners tend to buy more processed and packaged foods on a frequent basis (especially in high-income areas like Casablanca, Rabat, Tangiers, and Marrakech). Large supermarkets are currently in all major Moroccan cities (including Agadir, Tangiers, Fes, Meknes, Tetouan, and Mohamedia) and are increasingly being opened in even middle size cities (such as Beni Mellal, Khouribga and Oujda) as well as in lower-income areas of major cities, thus providing alternatives to traditional buying habits. Moroccans are gradually shifting towards modern retail channels and embracing technology, with independent small grocers growing at a slow rate compared to their previous performance.
Marjane Holding and Label’Vie (Carrefour, Carrefour Market, and Atacadao) are Morocco’s leading modern food retailers with other notables including Ynna (Aswak Salam) and BIM. About half of supermarkets’ sales take place in Casablanca and Rabat.

Internet retailing packaged food sales are expected to continue increasing, as consumers are always looking for more convenience. The demand for convenience, health and wellness, will be among the main consumer trends that are likely to impact retailing in the years to come in groceries.

Distribution market players
According to the latest figures from USDA, Marjane remained the leading supermarket in Morocco in value terms in 2021. In general, the main brands are:

- Marjane Holding (including Acima): with 38 hypermarkets and 52 supermarkets and an estimated market share of 57% in 2021
- Label’Vie group: owns the brands Atacadao (12 hypermarkets) and Carrefour (12 hypermarkets and 70 supermarkets), with a combined turnover of around USD 538 million
- BIM, a discount store with a wide presence in the country, had a turnover of around USD 50-100 million
- Aswak Assalam: with 14 outlets and a turnover of around USD 150-200 million

Furthermore, the French retailer group Système U entered the Moroccan landscape in 2019 and currently holds 2 supermarkets.
Concerning traditional grocery stores, government figures estimate their number at around 45,000. They are generally managed by one person and have a limited size.
Retail Sector Organisations
Ministry of Commerce and Industry
Trade and Services Federation


Operating a Business

Type of companies

Société à Responsabilité Limitée S.A.R.L. (private limited company)
Number of partners: 1 minimum and 50 maximum
Capital (max/min): MAD 10,000
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited to the amount of contributions.
Société anonyme, S.A. (public limited company)
Number of partners: 5 minimum with no maximum
Capital (max/min): MAD 3,000,000 to open a listed public limited companies and MAD 300,000 for a Public Liability company.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited to the amount of contributions.
Société en nom collectif, SNC (Partnership)
Number of partners: 2 partners at the minimum
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital required.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is unlimited.
Société en Commandite Simple, SCS (Limited Partnership)
Number of partners: 2 partners at the minimum
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital required.
Shareholders and liability: Liability of the active partners is unlimited and limited to the amount of contributions for the silent partners.
Société en Commandite par Actions, SCA (Partnership limited by shares)
Number of partners: 3 sleeping partners and one active partner.
Capital (max/min): no minimum capital.
Shareholders and liability: Liability of the active partners is unlimited and limited to the amount of contributions for the silent partners.
Setting Up a Company Morocco Middle East & North Africa
Procedures (number) 4.0 6.3
Time (days) 9.0 19.5

Source: Doing Business - Latest available data.


Cost of Labour

Minimum Wage
Morocco's minimum wage is MAD 3,300 per month in the public sector, MAD 2,828.71 per month in the private sector, and MAD 76,70 MAD per day for agricultural workers, according to the Moroccan government data.
Average Wage
The average salary of Moroccans in 2021 stood at around MAD 1,793. In the public sector, the average salary was MAD 8,237.
Social Contributions
Social Security Contributions Paid By Employers: Family allocation: 6.40%
Social allocation: 8.98% (with a computation base capped at MAD 6,000)
Professional tax: 1.60%
Mandatory medical care: 4.11%.
Social Security Contributions Paid By Employees: Social allocation: 4.48% (with a computation base capped at MAD 6,000)
Mandatory medical care: 2.26%

Intellectual Property

National Organisations
L'OMPIC (Moroccan Office of Industrial and Commercial Property) handles the registration of industrial patents, drawings and models and brands in Morocco. Consult also the Copyright Office of Morocco.
Regional Organisations
International Membership
Member of the WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization)
Signatory to the Paris Convention For the Protection of Intellectual Property


Tax Rates

Consumption Taxes

Nature of the Tax
VAT - Value-Added Tax (Taxe sur la Valeur Ajoutée - TVA)
Tax Rate
Reduced Tax Rate
A reduced rate of 10% applies to petroleum products; banking transactions; hotel operations; restaurant operations; sales and delivery operations relating to art objects; edible fluid oils; solar water heaters and photovoltaic panels, sales and deliveries of water intended for public distribution networks, sanitation services provided by sanitation organizations and water meter rental operations not intended for domestic use, fishing gear and nets intended for maritime fishing professionals, economy cars and all products and materials used in their manufacture, as well as related assembly services.

The VAT rate for transport, butter, services rendered by any direct selling agent or insurance broker in respect of contracts brought by it to an insurance business, and electricity is 14%.

A reduced rate of 7% applies to water; rental of water and electricity meters; pharmaceutical products and non-recoverable packaging of pharmaceutical products.

Zero-rated items include exported goods and services, goods placed under customs suspensive regime, fertilizers, machinery for exclusively agricultural use, investment goods recorded as fixed assets, acquired by taxable persons, for 36 months as from the start of the activity, excluding vehicles acquired by car rental agencies, pharmaceutical products, sales and deliveries of water for domestic use, sanitation services provided by sanitation organizations and water meter rental for the same use.

Per the changes of the 2024 Finance Law, the 7% and 14% rates have been phased out as follows:
  - Downward adjustments – no changes for 2023, 2024, 2025, 2026
  - Sale of electricity generated from renewable energy sources – 14% (2023), 12% (2024), 10% (2025), 10% (2026)
  - Services provided to insurance companies by direct marketers or insurance brokers (contracts brought to the company by the direct marketer or broker) – 14% (2023), 12% (2024), 10% (2025), 10% (2026)
  - Urban and road passenger and freight transport operations – 14% (2023), 13% (2024), 12% (2025), 10% (2026)
  - Upward adjustments – no changes for 2023, 2024, 2025, 2026
  - Refined or agglomerated sugar – 7% (2023), 8% (2024), 9% (2025), 10% (2026)
  - Rental of electricity meters – 7% (2023), 11% (2024), 15% (2025), 20% (2026)
  - Electric power – 14% (2023), 16% (2024), 18% (2025), 20% (2026)
  - Passenger and freight transport (non-urban and non-road) – 14% (2023), 16% (2024), 18% (2025), 20% (2026).

Other Consumption Taxes
Excise duties are levied on several products, including alcoholic beverages, energy drinks, tobacco, sugar, oil products, lubricants, etc.
Plane tickets for international flights departing from Moroccan airports are taxed at MAD 100 for Economy class and MAD 400 for Business and First class.

Corporate Taxes

Company Tax
For fiscal years 2024 to 2026, the evolution of the CIT rates for companies in Morocco is as follows:
Tax Rate For Foreign Companies
Moroccan residency status applies if a company is incorporated in Morocco or its place of effective management is in Morocco.
Capital Gains Taxation
Capital gains are treated as non-current income and taxed at the normal corporate tax rate.
Non-resident companies are exempt from capital gains derived from the sale of stocks listed on the Casablanca stock exchange, excluding the shares of real estate entities.
For the years 2023, 2024 and 2025, companies will benefit from a 70% deduction on the net capital gain resulting from the sale of fixed assets, excluding land and buildings.
Main Allowable Deductions and Tax Credits
Expenses incurred in connection with business activities are generally deductible unless specifically excluded. Start-up expenses shall be capitalised and depreciated for tax purposes over a five-year period. Interest on loans granted by direct shareholders is deductible if the capital is fully paid in, limited to the share capital equity and the interest rate provided annually by the Ministry of Finance.

Charitable contributions made by companies are deductible only if they are granted to foundations and societies explicitly provided by law. In the case of contributions made to the community enterprise, the deduction is capped at 0.2% of the turnover.

Bad debts that are definitively non-recoverable are treated as deductible losses. Taxes are generally deductible (except for corporate income tax).

Tax losses can be carried forward for up to four years from the end of the accounting period in which the loss occurred. However, the portion of a loss attributable to depreciation can be carried forward indefinitely. The carryback of losses is not permitted. Foreign tax relief is provided for foreign-sourced income.

Morocco offers tax incentives in the form of tax exemption or taxation at more advantageous rates for local and foreign investors. For instance, incentives include an exemption from business tax for the first five years for newly incorporated companies and a corporate income tax exemption for companies operating tourist establishments for the first five years, subject to certain conditions. Several acceleration zones in cities like Fes, Kenitra, Layoune, Nador, Rabat, and Tangier offer authorized companies a business tax exemption for the first 15 years and a corporate income tax exemption for the first five years. Companies with "Casablanca Finance City" status are entitled to a corporate income tax exemption for five years from the start of the tax year in which the status was obtained. Additionally, tax-neutral treatment may be available for corporate income tax purposes for the transfer of investment goods between member companies of a restructuring group. Companies that qualify as OPCIs are exempt from tax on rental income from buildings constructed for professional use, as well as dividends and interest received.

Other Corporate Taxes
Registration duties between 1% to 6% are due on all written or verbal conventions, such as property transfer of real estate, shares, or rights; company set-up; equity increase; and goodwill transfer (6%). A flat rate of MAD 200 is also applicable to specific operations and conventions. The acquisition of real property is subject to a 1% real estate tax.

Legal entities conducting business activities in Morocco are subject to a business tax based on the rental value of buildings, premises, and other assets used for the business. This tax is levied at rates of 10%, 20%, or 30% of the rental value, depending on the nature of the entity's business.

Additionally, a municipal tax is imposed at a rate of 10.5% on the rental value of real estate assets located within urban districts, and at a rate of 6.5% on the rental value of real estate assets in the peripheral zones of urban districts.

A Payroll tax (called professional training tax) is imposed on the gross monthly remuneration of employees that are subject to social security contributions, at a rate of 1.6%. Morocco's mandatory social security regime is managed by the CNSS (Caisse Nationale de Sécurité Sociale). Employers' contributions are as follows: family allocation 6.40%; social allocation 8.60% (with a computation base capped at MAD 6,000); professional tax 1.60%; mandatory medical care 4.11%.

Other Domestic Resources
General Tax Administration

Double Taxation Treaties

Countries With Whom a Double Taxation Treaty Have Been Signed
List of double taxation treaties signed by Morocco
Withholding Taxes
Dividends paid to a resident company are not subject to withholding tax. A 12.5% withholding tax rate applies to dividends paid to a resident individual, while the rate for a nonresident company or individual is 10%.
Interest paid to a resident company is subject to a 20% withholding tax. A 30% withholding tax applies to interest paid to a resident individual. Interest paid on a loan from a nonresident is subject to a 10% withholding tax, unless reduced by an applicable tax treaty. Interest on loans granted by a nonresident for 10 years or more is exempt from withholding tax.
Royalties paid to a resident are exempt from withholding tax, while royalties paid to a nonresident are subject to a 10% withholding tax.
The rates may vary according to specific tax treaties.