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Foreign Direct Investment

Rich in natural resources and economically stable, Algeria has historically attracted decent FDI flows. However, inflows were negatively impacted by the social unrest and the COVID-19 pandemic these last few years. According to the data published by UNCTAD in the World Investment Report 2022, FDIs to Algeria decreased by 23.9% to USD 870 million in 2021 (down from USD 1.1 billion one year earlier) with inflows directed primarily to the natural resources sector. On the other hand, the stock of FDI increased, reaching USD 34 billion in 2021, around 20.6% of GDP. Over the last few years, it can be seen a reorientation of FDI towards the domestic market, thanks to the proliferation of development projects in transportation and infrastructure. The United States and Italy have been investing heavily in Algeria, taking over France's historical position as the largest investor in the country. European investments have recently decreased in favour of greater interest from Gulf investors. On a country level, the United States, Italy, France and Spain are the leading investors, according to the latest investment climate statement for Algeria from the U.S. State Department. Industry, construction and transport are the sectors that have received the most of the FDI over the 2022-2023 period. The total number of investments registered for that period with the National Agency for Investment Development (ANDI) amounted to 3,120 projects for an estimated value of DZD 1,731 billion.

Protectionist measures, as well as corruption, bureaucracy, a weak financial sector and legal insecurity in terms of intellectual property rights, are serious obstacles to investment. Until 2019, the participation of a foreign investor in an Algerian company was limited to 49% and foreign contractors are forced to find local partners for public tenders. However, the government of President Abdelmadjid Tebboune eliminated the so-called "51/49" restriction that required Algerian majority ownership of all new companies. The requirement will be maintained for "strategic sectors", identified as hydrocarbons, mining, defence, the import of goods for resale in Algeria, and pharmaceutical production. The government has also approved a new hydrocarbons law, improving fiscal conditions and contract flexibility in order to attract new international investors. As a result of the promulgation of this law, major international oil companies signed memoranda of understanding with the national hydrocarbon company Sonatrach. Algeria ranks 115th among the 132 economies in the Global Innovation Index 2022 and167th out of 177 countries in the 2022 Index of Economic Freedom.

Foreign Direct Investment 202020212022
FDI Inward Flow (million USD) 1,14387089
FDI Stock (million USD) 33,10733,97734,066
Number of Greenfield Investments* 6104
Value of Greenfield Investments (million USD) 82861136

Source: UNCTAD - Latest available data.

Note: * Greenfield Investments are a form of Foreign Direct Investment where a parent company starts a new venture in a foreign country by constructing new operational facilities from the ground up.

Country Comparison For the Protection of Investors Algeria Middle East & North Africa United States Germany
Index of Transaction Transparency* 4.0 6.4 7.0 5.0
Index of Manager’s Responsibility** 1.0 4.8 9.0 5.0
Index of Shareholders’ Power*** 5.0 4.7 9.0 5.0

Source: Doing Business - Latest available data.

Note: *The Greater the Index, the More Transparent the Conditions of Transactions. **The Greater the Index, the More the Manager is Personally Responsible. *** The Greater the Index, the Easier it Will Be For Shareholders to Take Legal Action.


What to consider if you invest in Algeria

Strong Points

Algeria's strong points for FDI include:

  • Low cost of energy (gas, fuel and electricity)
  • Large liquidity reserve which lowers its vulnerability to commodity prices
  • Strong potential in renewable energy and tourism
  • Skilled and inexpensive workforce
  • Recent laws to encourage foreign investments and various incentives for foreign investors
  • Algeria’s proximity to Europe, its geographic location as an interface between Europe and Africa and inside the Maghreb.
Weak Points

Algeria's weak points for FDI include:

  • Slow administrative procedures and large and inefficient public sector
  • Weak business climate, according to international evaluation agencies
  • The dependence of the economy on hydrocarbons, which increases dependence on imports of transformed goods
  • The insufficient development of regional markets, which restrain Algeria's appeal to foreign investors
  • The complexity of legislation, especially tax law
  • The difficulty to acquire industrial property
  • High level of unemployment among young people
  • Degraded regional geopolitical context (Libya, Mali, tensions with Morocco).
Government Measures to Motivate or Restrict FDI
To attract and encourage foreign investment, the Government has set up several attractive measures, including the reduction of corporate taxes for investment in specific locations, a reduction in social security contributions for recruitment of young employees, the concession of land by mutual agreement (which provide similar rights to ownership) and tax exemptions throughout the life of the project for exporting projects. For further details consult the investment guide by KPMG and ANDI (National Agency for Investment Development).

The government is trying hard to attract FDI in sectors that may create jobs and reduce the imports of assembled goods. Several sectors are targets for foreign investors, including the automobile industry and the renewable energy sector.  

Nevertheless, since 2008 there are many FDI restrictions. Until 2019, for each new investment project in Algeria, the majority of its capital (51%) had to be held by local partners; however such limitation has been lifted (except for “strategic sectors” such as hydrocarbons, mining, defense, and pharmaceuticals). The Algerian government has enacted protectionist economic policies (import quotas for several types of products). Nevertheless, in recent years Algeria has benefited from the support of the World Bank to improve its business climate. 


Investment Opportunities

The Key Sectors of the National Economy
Hydrocarbons, food processing, real estate, chemicals and retailing.
High Potential Sectors
In terms of needs, Algeria suffers from a housing shortage and has extensive needs in the health care sector. Furthermore, manufacturing is underdeveloped: Algeria imports most of its manufactured goods. Many sectors are booming: health, agriculture (nowadays, an important percentage of agrarian products is imported), information and communication technologies (mobile phone and internet), hydrocarbons, renewable energies, tourism, construction industry, infrastructure development (roads, railways, airports, ports, etc.), treatment and water management, banking sector, food processing sector, defence, automobile, mass retail. 
Privatization Programmes
Most public industrial and service companies are eligible for privatisation. Privatisation covers 1,200 economic public companies (EPE) and is a way of opening up the Algerian economy to the free market, legally recognised by the promulgation of a new legislative framework. The Pro investments organisation is available on-line on the website of the Ministry of Industry. In 2016, the government announced that 66% of the shares of a state-owned unprofitable company may be purchased by a private interest, provided that it is predominantly owned by one or several Algerian citizens. However, privatization programs of state-owned companies have been criticized by the public, as it remains a sensitive subject. To date, state-owned enterprises represent more than half of the formal Algerian economy; and privatizations have been limited to the water sector.
Foreign companies have been able to have complete ownership of an oilfield. Shale gas should also be open to foreign investors. Public banks privatisation has been planned for 2022.
Tenders, Projects and Public Procurement
Tenders Info, Tenders in Algeria
DgMarket, Tenders Worldwide

Sectors Where Investment Opportunities Are Fewer

Monopolistic Sectors
In principle, there are no longer any monopolies in Algeria. However, some sectors of activity remain difficult to enter, such as the tobacco and hydrocarbon sectors.
Sectors in Decline

Finding Assistance For Further Information

Investment Aid Agency
National Agency for Development and Investment
Other Useful Resources
Algeria Investment Guide
Doing Business Guides
Algeria Commercial Guide -
International Tax and Business Guide from PwC